against 义务阶段1500 全国卷频次:35
I played a racquetball game against my cousin Ed last week.
Against the flow of new words, many Japanese are turning back to the study of their own language.
My husband suggested we give her a computer to play against.
They have a warm, solid shelter against the wind.
up against 面临
go against 不利于；违反；反对
over against 在…对面；正对着；与…相反；与…形成对照
as against 与…相对照；比…
back against 背朝着
對著,逆;反對;違反;緊靠著;對比I had appetite for inviting the man who bit me despite I had spite against him.我有意邀請咬我的人,盡管我怨恨他.
HELP For the special uses of against in phrasal verbs, look at the entries for the verbs. For example count against sb is in the phrasal verb section at count.
against 在短语动词中的特殊用法见有关动词词条。如 count against sb 在词条 count 的短语动词部份。
1. opposing or disagreeing with sb / sth
the fight against terrorism
We’re playing against the league champions next week.
We were rowing against the current.
That’s against the law.
She was forced to marry against her will.
Are you for or against the death penalty?
She is against seeing (= does not want to see) him.
I’d advise you against doing that.
2. not to the advantage or favour of sb / sth
The evidence is against him.
Her age is against her.
⇨ compare for prep. (7)
3. close to, touching or hitting sb / sth
Put the piano there, against the wall.
The rain beat against the windows.
4. in order to prevent sth from happening or to reduce the damage caused by sth
an injection against rabies
They took precautions against fire.
Are we insured against theft?
5. with sth in the background, as a contrast
His red clothes stood out clearly against the snow.
(figurative) The love story unfolds against a background of civil war.
6. used when you are comparing ten things
You must weigh the benefits against the cost.
Check your receipts against the statement.
What’s the rate of exchange against the dollar?
a) used to say that someone opposes or disagrees with something 反对
Every council member voted against the proposal.
those who are campaigning against the new road
He advised me against travelling.
Mr Howard has declared that he is against all forms of racism.
the fight against terrorism
b) used to say that an action is not wanted or approved of by someone 〔行为〕违背，与…相悖
They got married against her parents’ wishes (=although they knew her parents did not want them to).
She has been kept in the house against her will (=she does not want to stay in the house).
The use of certain drugs is against the law (=illegal).
It’s against my principles to borrow money (=I do not believe it is right).
c) used to say that something is not allowed by a law or rule 〔法律或法规〕禁止
There ought to be a law against it.
2 used to say who someone is competing with or trying to defeat in a game, battle etc 和…比赛[打仗等] Gambotti was injured in last Saturday’s game against the Lions.
We’ll be competing against the best companies in Europe.
3 used to say who is harmed, threatened, or given a disadvantage 对…造成伤害[威胁，不利] violence against elderly people
crimes against humanity
discrimination against women
There had been death threats against prison staff.
Your lack of experience could count against you.
The regulations tend to work against smaller companies.
4 used to say that something touches, hits, or rubs a surface 碰；撞
the sound of the rain drumming against my window
The car skidded and we could hear the crunch of metal against metal.
5 next to and touching an upright surface, especially for support 倚着，靠着
There was a ladder propped up against the wall.
The younger policeman was leaning against the bureau with his arms folded.
6 in the opposite direction to the movement or flow of something 逆 OPP with
7 seen with something else behind or as a background 以…为背景；衬托
8 used to show that you are considering particular events in relation to other events that are happening at the same time 在…情况下；在…背景下
9 used to say what you are comparing something with 与…相比
10 used to say who or what you are trying to protect someone or something from 防，抗
11 used to say who is said or shown to have done something wrong 表明[声称]…有错
12 be/come up against somebody/something to have to deal with a difficult opponent or problem 必须面对某人/某事
13 have something against somebody/something to dislike or disapprove of someone or something 不喜欢[不赞成]某人/某事
Origin against (1300-1400) againes “against” ((11-16 centuries)), from again
In addition to the uses shown below, against is used in phrasal verbs such as ‘come up against’, ‘guard against’, and ‘hold against’.
除下列用法外，against还可用于come up against, guard against, hold against等短语动词中。
1.PREP 介词紧靠；倚；碰 If one thing is leaning or pressing against another, it is touching it.
She leaned against him…
On a table pushed against a wall there were bottles of beer and wine.
…the rain beating against the window panes.
2.PREP 介词反对（计划、政策、制度等） If you are against something such as a plan, policy, or system, you think it is wrong, bad, or stupid.
Taxes are unpopular — it is understandable that voters are against them…
Joan was very much against commencing drug treatment.
…a march to protest against job losses.
Against is also an adverb.
The vote for the suspension of the party was 283 in favour with 29 against.
3.PREP 介词与…竞争；与…对阵 If you compete against someone in a game, you try to beat them.
The tour will include games against the Australian Barbarians…
Billy Hardy has pulled out of his second fight against Noel Carroll after a training accident.
4.PREP 介词反对；对抗 If you take action against someone or something, you try to harm them.
Security forces are still using violence against opponents of the government.
…an upsurge in racism against immigrants…
The demonstration itself was against the Government’s new Community Charge.
5.PREP 介词制止；预防；阻止 If you take action against a possible future event, you try to prevent it.
…the fight against crime…
They are arguing against hospital closures…
I must warn you against raising your hopes.
6.PREP 介词违背，违抗（愿望、劝告或命令） If you do something against someone’s wishes, advice, or orders, you do not do what they want you to do or tell you to do.
He didn’t want to go against the wishes of the German government…
He discharged himself from hospital against the advice of doctors.
7.PREP 介词防备 If you do something in order to protect yourself against something unpleasant or harmful, you do something which will make its effects on you less serious if it happens.
A business needs insurance against risks such as fire and flood…
It has been claimed that wine helps protect against heart disease.
8.PHRASE 短语不喜欢；对…存有芥蒂 If you have something against someone or something, you dislike them.
Have you got something against women, Les?…
I have nothing against foreigners.
9.PREP 介词违反（法律或规则） If something is against the law or against the rules, there is a law or a rule which says that you must not do it.
It is against the law to detain you against your will for any length of time…
We thought cheating was against the rules.
10.PREP 介词迎着；逆着 If you are moving against a current, tide, or wind, you are moving in the opposite direction to it.
…swimming upstream against the current…
They were going to sail around the little island, against the tide.
11.PREP 介词以…为背景 If something happens or is considered against a particular background of events, it is considered in relation to those events, because those events are relevant to it.
The Pope has sent a message appealing for unity in his homeland, against a background of divisions in the Solidarity movement…
The profits rise was achieved against a backdrop of falling metal prices.
12.PREP 介词和…对比；对照 If something is measured or valued against something else, it is measured or valued by comparing it with the other thing.
Our policy has to be judged against a clear test: will it improve the standard of education?…
Check the operator’s productivity against agreed targets…
The US dollar is down against most foreign currencies today.
13.PHRASE 短语与…相对；与…比较 If you discuss a particular set of facts or figures as against another set, you are comparing or contrasting the two sets of facts or figures.
Over 50% of divorced men regretted their divorce, as against 25% of women.
14.PREP 介词不利于 The odds against something happening are the chances or odds that it will not happen.
The odds against him surviving are incredible.
Against is also an adverb.
What were the odds against?
15. up against→see: up; against the clock→see: clock;
a : in opposition to (someone or something)违反；反对；逆
Everyone was against them. [=everyone opposed them] 所有人都反对他们。
We must continue the struggle for justice and against injustice.
She voted against the proposal.
You’re either for/with me or against me! [=you either support me or oppose me] 你要么支持我，要么反对我。
He spoke against appeasing the enemy.
The U.S. fought against Germany in World Wars I and II. = The U.S. and Germany fought against each other in World Wars I and II.
Some people were for the proposal but others were against it.
There’s a law against doing that.
His parents were angry when they learned he had borrowed the car against their wishes. [=he borrowed the car even though they did not want him to] 他的父母得知他违背他们的意愿借了那辆车之后非常生气。
Against my advice, she quit her job. [=she quit her job even though I advised her not to] 她不听我的劝告，辞掉了工作。
He was being held against his will. [=he was being kept in a place by force even though he wanted to leave] 他被强行监禁起来。
b : in competition with (someone or something)与…竞争
two runners racing against each other
It’s the Yankees against [=versus] the Red Sox tonight.
— used to indicate the person or thing that is affected or harmed by something受…影响；受…伤害
He denies the charges that have been made against him.
The evidence against him is very convincing.
The war was a crime against humanity.
Someone has been making threats against her.
: not agreeing with or allowed by (something, such as a law)违反
You can’t do that. It’s against the law. [=the law does not allow it] 你不能那样做。那是违法的。
Touching the ball with your hands is against the rules.
I won’t do it. It’s against my principles. [=my principles don’t allow it; I believe that it is wrong] 我不会做这事。这违背了我的准则。
They were acting against tradition. [=acting in a way that did not agree with tradition] 他们在以有违传统的方式行事。
a : not helping or favoring (someone)对（某人）不利
Everything was/went against them. [=everything that happened was unfavorable to them] 情况对他们不利。
Her appearance is/counts against her. [=her appearance does not help her; people form a bad opinion of her because of her appearance] 她的容貌不讨人喜欢。
b : as a reason for disliking (someone or something)对…有成见
I have nothing against him. [=I don’t dislike him; I have no reason for disliking him] 我对他没有任何成见。
We disagree about many things, but I don’t hold it/that against you. [=I don’t dislike you because of it/that] 我们在很多事情上有分歧，但我不会因此讨厌你。
— used to say that one thing is being compared with another同比；和…对比
Profits are up this year against last year. [=profits are higher this year than they were last year] 同比去年，今年的利润有所增长。
The yen rose/fell against the dollar.
a graph that plots height against weight
We will weigh/balance the risk against the possible benefit. [=we will compare the risk with the possible benefit] 我们会权衡风险与可能得到的收益。
a : as a defense or protection from (something)抵御；预防；以防
He built a crude hut as a shelter against [=from] the cold.
injections against flu
b : in preparation for (something)为…做准备；防备
saving against [=for] an uncertain future
— used to describe hitting or touching something or someone触；碰；倚
I accidentally knocked/hit my head against the shelf.
The waves were beating against [=on] the shore.
She accidentally brushed against him as she walked by.
The ladder was leaning against the wall.
She was resting her head against the side of the chair.
: in a direction opposite to the movement of (something)逆向；与…相反方向
They were sailing against the wind.
swimming against the current/tide
: with the background of (something)在…的衬托下；以…为背景
The tree looked beautiful when viewed against the dark sky.
Her colorful coat stood out against the dull colors of the room.
: as a charge on (something)作为（某物的）应付款项
The purchase was charged against [=to] her account. [=the amount of money needed for the purchase was added to the amount owed in her account] 这笔购物款记在了她的账上。